Thursday, February 19, 2015

Bryatesle: Case Usage II: Gaps

This post is part of a series on the case system of Bryatesle
I. The nominative and some subcases
II. Gaps
III. The Dative
IV. The Ablative
V. The Ergative
Lots of Bryatesle nouns are defective in some sense or other.

A small number of nouns lack a nominative altogether, but otherwise have a more full set of forms. The term 'naked' marks the use of the primary cases without secondary case marking - some nouns lack a primary case except when it's marked for secondary cases as well. Here, I give the root and a vowel that gives some indication as to the forms used by other nouns:
*seig(e) (masc) extended family, a set of relatives, clan; lacks nominatives. igan which has a similar meaning can be any case. However, there are differences in meaning - igan is more matter-of-factly, whereas seige includes a variety of obligations and expectations.
*ritë(n) (masc) temple
*kurb(i) (fem) a common cereal
*pryb(e) (masc) an excuse
Those above never appear in nominative, neither with or without secondary cases. Some nouns, however, only lack the 'naked' nominative, and usually all other 'naked cases' as well. Some secondary cases may also be missing:
pargu- (masc, pl) - lacks singular as well. Money. Only appears in partitive, possessive, negative and definite in combination with the other cases.
bras- (neut) - power, strength. (Almost never appears with the negative, and seldom with the partitive.)
xryg- (neut) -  fear. (Primarily partitive or definite).
kirga- (fem) - zeal
kust- (fem) - sufficient space (lacks partitive)
sydne- (masc) - stench (lacks definite, but does appear in the 'naked' accusative, dative and ablative)
kulyt- (neut) -  test, attempt (has a naked accusative, but no naked dative or ablative)

A bunch of mass nouns exclusively have forms with the partitive case:
jagur, jagur, jagyr  (neut: nom, acc, obl) dirt (as in 'a spot of uncleanness')
kragu, kraguze, kragux (fem: nom, acc, obl) ash. This has a related noun which exclusively has possessive forms - kragela, kragei, kragir, kraging - the ashes of a dead person.
stertu, stertëze, stertër (masc: nom, acc, obl): earth, dirt
sardur, sardur, sardyr (neut): a certain poisonous fruit (that is used for colouring fabrics)
Some nouns only have possessive forms:
ragd|unë, -an, -ar, -ënt; -uvu, -ëkux, -emxi, -emxi, debt (masc, given as sg nom acc dat abl, pl nom acc dat abl) (a synonym that has a full paradigm is kugyda, (fem))
 kynt|ela, -ei, -ir, -ing, -ivi, -eki, -ersi, -ersi: inheritance (fem). A fuller paradigm can be obtained by kynurdi (fem)
drig|ela, -ei, -ir, -ing, ... the wife of the king. Unlike the other 'possessum tantum' nouns here, drigela can be used without a syntactic possessor present.
Some only have definite forms:
driginë (fem) a ruling queen (as opposed to a queen by marriage, who exclusively appears in the possessed form)
 ktirtes (neut) - any castle
sandes - the direction 'east' (the other directions are not restricted to definite)

Two nouns only have reciprocal object forms:
sakivn- the two participants in a duel, whenever their actions can be expressed in reciprocal ways. For obvious reasons also always plural.
lidan- a plural term denoting the seasons in their cycle of one following the other. Of course, only appears when grammatically possible. Lidanisr sagita, lidanisr sagitër - seasons have followed one on the other, seasons will follow one on the other.
A few nouns only have  secondary subject forms. All of these have synonyms that have full paradigms:
harkansus, -aksus, -esus, -itysus, (no excl or voc), -ersus, -uksus, -umxus, -ursus; a teacher can be referred to by this term if he  does something that grammatically calls for it - which he often will, since he often is a causer. The more common term is girme.
kurmasus, -aksus, ...  a military officer. The more common term is sudur.
ginsus, -iksus, ... a king. The more common term is parge.
 Further, there are nouns that exclusively have a nominative:
seban (masc) - one of the designations for God.
lavyk (masc) - 'something characterized by being sufficient for the situation'. (Only combines with reciprocal object and secondary subject markings).
Further, some nouns lack accusatives:
pyrida - a thought
stirmu (neut- a lifetime
kidsan (fem) - a regular prayer

More regularly, most nouns designating stretches of time lack accusatives.

Lack of ablative and dative forms is unusual; lack of exclamative and vocative is, however, rather usual.

A large number of adverbs are basically nouns that only exist in some particular combination of case and secondary case:
tabiring! - a profanity, 'the demon of!' (the possessor being implied by syntactical cues, but not being a proper possessor.) The meaning is comparable to 'the gall to do such a thing'. Tabir has historically been used more widely but now only survives in this particular exclamation.
kybavux - luckily
susragemxi -  unfortunately
This only gives a sample of the gaps in Bryatesle morphology. Examples of the main types of gaps have been given, and a fair share of vocabulary to boot.

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