1. Absolute Animacy Hierarchy RestrictionsThe verb 'kill' only permits animate subjects, but can take non-animate agents, and thus has an absolute restriction on the hierarchy restriction - basically, there is a line drawn across the hierarchy which limits it. With inanimate agents, the passive is required, and the agent is in the general ablative case.
A typical example of this would be the verb 'kill', which cannot take a proper inanimate subject, so e.g.
*ilmis arbaŋ-utus kerb-i-śAnother would be 'utter/express/signal/...', which basically is the same verb as 'exhale', hifnəs.
*winter killed the herd
arbaŋ ilm-erəś kerb-eśp
the herd was killed by the winter
*nəlve iś kerb-i-ś
an arrow killed him
i nəlv-erəś kerb-eśp
(s)he was killed by an arrow
*ədnist marćost-uc hifn-i-śAll of these need to be rendered in the passive (or applicative) to be grammatical in Ćwarmin.
silence expresses agreement
marćost ədnist-erəś hifn-e-kn-eśp
agreement is expressed through silence (note: -e-kn- is really the applicative morpheme -ken-, and the reason the applicative is used here has to do with the argument structure of hifn-, which really means something like 'breathe'; consider the -ken- similar to a prefixed preposition or adverb, only, it does not appear in the active forms of the verb all that often).
2. Relative Animacy Hierarchy RestrictionsWith many verbs, a less animate noun cannot be subject with a verb whose object is more animate. These include any verb indicating fights (ampac, nenŋel, ćasćar - all signifying fighting), causing movement sideways or upwards (hegec - push, hegtəm - pull, salkum - lift, raise, kunkun - to shake to-and-fro, vabžum - pull in by rope, liŋbəl - to move a significant distance by pulling, žal - to carry),...
The main difference here from the previous class is that low-ranked nouns can be subjects, provided the object has lower or equal rank. Thus,
ćiriŋ kosdan-uc salkum-i-śare permitted, but not
the tripod lifts the tent fabric
onkup estnet-uc hegədm-i-ś
the weight pulls the rope
*onkup vond-uc hegədm-i-śwhich would require
the weight pulls the horse
vond onkup-araś hegt-eśp
3. Lexically SpecifiedThis is an odd, but limited bunch.
mamnan - to put a child to sleep
Only the mother of the child can be the proper subject, any other agent must be oblique.ŋačćur - to wear a piece of clothing
The restriction here is related to tense rather than to subject or object - non-present and non-imperative must be passive.
biəkin - to endure
Passive whenever the object is not indefinite.luzǯar - to praise
passive whenever the object is inanimate.