In Dairwueh, having is expressed using the preposition edə in combination with the third person II copula -
pos neg pos
pres erb dirš ŋey past ŋe ediš (ŋe)
Thus, baud ŋe edə vena - I had a farm (farm was by me).
The preposition edə occurs in some temporal expressions and some fossilized locative expressions, but is otherwise not used much.
However, edə can also take a preprepositional noun or adjective (or even adverb). In combination with the possessive construction, the adjective corresponds to the bolded elements below:
- to have object as/for complement
- X's object is complement
- object is X's complement
- object is complement by X/for X
- owner perceives object as complement