Thursday, May 4, 2017

Ŋʒädär: Possessive Suffixes

The statements here hold for most of the Ŋʒädär branch, and also widely for the Dagurib branch of Ŋʒädär-Ćwarmin languages.

Pronouns as possessors are generally not present as words unto themselves, but as suffixes of the
absolutive possessumdative possessumoblique possessum
1 sg-sA-sAr-s-As-sOt-As- or -sA- -sIs-
1 pl-dA-dAr-dAx-Ad-Od--Ad- or -dA--dIs-

2 sg-Un-nUr-nUx-Un-On--Un- or -nU--nIs-
2 pl-Ur-rUr-rUx-Un-On--Ur- or -rU--nIs-
3 prox-sI-sIr-sIx-Is-IsI--sI- or -Is--Is-

The location of these suffixes vary; the absolutive suffixes go word-finally, and replace the case marker completely. This conflates the singular and plural obviative distinction for the possessum. The dative suffix goes finally for proximative datives, but before the case suffix for obviative ones. The number distinction is lost with dative possessums. The obviative dative suffixes require the plural dative marker, even if the possessum is singular - this same pattern appears with the obviative marker for the dative.

For the obliques, the possessive suffix goes before the case suffixes, and replaces number and obviative markers.

Second person singular and plural are conflated in some positions.

Proximative nouns cannot have obviative possessors. Third person non-personal pronominal possessors (i.e. indefinites and such) may cause the possessum to take the 3rd person obviative marker, but this seems highly optional, possibly emphasizing the type of pronoun of the possessor.

Uses for these include, beyond possessors, object suffixes on some participles, subject suffixes on others. The word 'and', on also can take the absolutive singular proximative forms (or the obviative -q(O), to signify 'and (pronoun)', or '(pronoun) too' and similar things. These forms further can take regular case suffixes, getting forms like onsam 'and to me, to me too', ondaŋa 'and at you, at you too'. Finally, some adjectives can take these for complements, including p'ürkör (similar to X), so p'ürkörüx = similar to you(pl), korqəl (related to), korqəlas-[case congruence]. Different adjectives may take different suffixes here: p'ürkör takes absolute obviative or plural proximative in numeric congruence with the noun that is similar to someone; p'ürkör does not take congruence when it has a possessive suffix. Korqəl always takes case congruence with the head noun, and therefore follows the full complexity of the table above. The third type can be exemplified by varın-, "appealing (to X)" (always dat. prox. poss. forms).

Thus, we have three classes: I (p'ürkör-like adjectives), II (korqəl-like adjectives) and III (varın-like adjectives).
Some examples:
kostan- (unappealing to)
mitkis- (insufficient for)
vinei- (too small for)
irib- (angry at)

gərəs- (loyal (to X))
sork'o- ( thankful (to X))
nüre- (infatuated (with X))
sajan- (married (to X), only used for the wife

ökäm- (married (to X), only used for the husband
sacıd- (insufficient for)
akom- (too much (for X))
t'ebä- (dear (to X))

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