Sunday, May 29, 2016

Ŋʒädär: A Few Verbs with Suppletive Incorporation of Recipient

For a number of verbs, there are suppletive roots depending on the person and number of the recipient. The number of the recipient for third person is absent, but may be marked by a reduced form of the pronouns. Some person distinctions not present in the pronominal system are present in these verbal suppletions, and vice versa, however, making their use rather complicated.
give temporary control over
I sgmasət-
I plmadot-
II sgkep'är-
II plyüvür-
III refl. poss.melezm-
III indef/neg/atelicmelige-
III reflčehme-
give ownership of land or housing
I sgnocotr-
I plnodot-
II sgnop'ar-
II pltüvür-
III refl. poss.naɣazm-
III indef/neg/atelicnaruga-
III refl(d)ɣaɣma-
give ownership over other property
I sgp'əsıɣ-
I plp'ədıɣ-
II sgvap'ıl-
II pltöp'ül-
III refl. poss.p'aɣasp'-
III indef/neg/atelicp'aruga-
III refl(d)ɣaɣma-
bestow a title upon
I sgɣosat-
I plɣodot-
II sgvabal-
II plyöbül-
III refl. poss.k'öɣözb-
III indef/neg/atelick'öɣ-
III reflN/A
give someone authority as chieftain over
I sgsöčösäm-
I plsöčödäm-
II sgöčövör-
II plsüčüvör-
III refl. poss.kammazm-
III indef/neg/atelickazm-
III reflN/A
give religious authority over
I sgsödösü-
I plsödödü-
II sgödövör-
II plsüdüvör-
III refl. poss.tarazm-
III indef/neg/atelicN/A
III reflN/A
give someone a blessing*
I sgdise-
I pldidiev-
II sgdevm-
II pldeir-
III refl. poss.dinihni-
III indef/neg/atelicdinizm-
III reflN/A
* there are a number of nouns corresponding to different types of blessings
give an order
I sgp'aru-
I plk'alu-
II sgsarvo-
II plyarvo-
III refl. poss.xuzm-
III indef/neg/atelicxugu-
III reflxuɣmu-
obtain someone as a godparent**
I sglavır-
I plɣavır-
II sgkavir-
II plɣövür-
III refl. poss.ɣäzm-
III indef/neg/atelicɣägü-
III reflɣäɣmü-
** there are a number of nouns corresponding to different kinds of godparents; the subjects and objects can either be the parents of the child or the child itself
Syntactically, most of these are ergative verbs - the thing that is bestowed or given to the embedded recipient, thus:
p'orga masət
herd I_was_given_temporary_control
I was given temporary control over a herd

ehi p'orga masə(t)-z
he herd I_was_given_temporary_control-direct
he gave me temporary control over a/his herd

The reflexive possessive third person means a third person was given control over something that previously was also his or her or theirs in some other sense. A pronoun in the dative can serve to disambiguate number for the recipient. 

The indefinite/negative/atelic is used when the action in the third person is not telic, not reflexive, not reflexive-possessive, and not telic, i.e. transferring the property was interrupted or failed or was just underway. The reflexive sometimes is used to imply taking something unjustifiedly, and can sometimes have recipients of other persons given as explicit dative pronouns.

There are obvious almost-regularities in here, but also some pretty wild variations; historically, these seem to originate with roots under various stages of contamination with other synonymous roots with incorporated pronouns.

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